VIM Cheat Sheet.

VI / VIM is a powerful editor and I built this small reference of commands that can be used.

VIM Typically functions in different modes.

Command mode

Possibly the most important thing to know is that when you're in command mode you can't insert text immediately. You first need to issue an insert, append, or open command to insert text.

Visual mode

Visual mode is used for copying and pasting for example.

Insert mode

Insert mode is used to add and append to the file.

Last line mode

You can only get to last line mode from command mode, and you get into last line mode by pressing the colon key.

Cheat Sheet / Commands

:help keyword - open help for keyword

:close - close current pane

:wq or :x or ZZ - write (save) and quit

:q - quit (fails if there are unsaved changes)

:q! or ZQ - quit and throw away unsaved changes

Working files

:e filename - edit another file

:o file - open file

:saveas file - save file as

:w - write (save) the file, but don't exit

:Explore - Directory listing

Cursor Movement

h - move cursor left

j - move cursor down

k - move cursor up

l - move cursor right

H - move to top of screen

M - move to middle of screen

L - move to bottom of screen

w - jump forwards to the start of a word

W - jump forwards to the start of a word (words can contain punctuation)

e - jump forwards to the end of a word

E - jump forwards to the end of a word (words can contain punctuation)

b - jump backwards to the start of a word

B - jump backwards to the start of a word (words can contain punctuation)

0 - jump to the start of the line

^ - jump to the first non

$ - jump to the end of the line

g_ - jump to the last non

gg - go to the first line of the document

G - go to the last line of the document

5G - go to line 5

fx - jump to next occurrence of character x

tx - jump to before next occurrence of character x

} - jump to next paragraph (or function/block, when editing code)

{ - jump to previous paragraph (or function/block, when editing code)

zz - center cursor on screen

Ctrl + b - move back one full screen

Ctrl + f - move forward one full screen

Ctrl + d - move forward 1/2 a screen

Ctrl + u - move back 1/2 a screen

Tip Prefix a cursor movement command with a number to repeat it. For example, 4j moves down 4 lines.

Insert mode

i - insert before the cursor

I - insert at the beginning of the line

a - insert (append) after the cursor

A - insert (append) at the end of the line

o - append (open) a new line below the current line

O - append (open) a new line above the current line

ea - insert (append) at the end of the word

Esc - exit insert mode

Editing

r - replace a single character

J - join line below to the current one

cc - change (replace) entire line

cw - change (replace) to the end of the word

c$ - change (replace) to the end of the line

s - delete character and substitute text

S - delete line and substitute text (same as cc)

xp - transpose two letters (delete and paste)

u - undo

Ctrl + r - redo

Marking Text / Visual Mode

v - start visual mode, mark lines, then do a command (like y

V - start linewise visual mode

o - move to other end of marked area

Ctrl + v - start visual block mode

O - move to other corner of block

aw - mark a word

ab - a block with ()

aB - a block with {}

ib - inner block with ()

iB - inner block with {}

Esc - exit visual mode

Visual Commands

> - shift text right

< - shift text left

y - yank (copy) marked text

d - delete marked text

~ - switch case

Cut and Paste

yy - yank (copy) a line

2yy - yank (copy) 2 lines

yw - yank (copy) the characters of the word from the cursor position to the start of the next word

y$ - yank (copy) to end of line

p - put (paste) the clipboard after cursor

P - put (paste) before cursor

dd - delete (cut) a line

2dd - delete (cut) 2 lines

dw - delete (cut) the characters of the word from the cursor position to the start of the next word

D - delete (cut) to the end of the line

d$ - delete (cut) to the end of the line

x - delete (cut) character

Search and replace

/pattern - search for pattern

?pattern - search backward for pattern

vpattern - 'very magic' pattern: non

n - repeat search in same direction

N - repeat search in opposite direction

:%s/old/new/g - replace all old with new throughout file

:%s/old/new/gc - replace all old with new throughout file with confirmations

:noh - remove highlighting of search matches

Multiple Windows

:split filename - split window and load another file

ctrl-w up arrow - move to window above

ctrl-w left arrow - move to window left

ctrl-w up right arrow - move to window right

ctrl-w up down arrow - move to window below

ctrl-w ctrl-w - move cursor to another window (cycle)

ctrl-w_ - maximize current window

ctrl-w= - make all equal size

10 ctrl-w+ - increase window size by 10 lines

:vsplit file - vertical split

:sview file - same as split, but readonly

:hide - close current window

:only - keep only this window open

:ls - show current buffers

:b 2 - open buffer #2 in this window